Glossary Of Terms
AFUEAFUE or Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency measures how efficiently a gas furnace or boiler changes fuel into heat in a year. For example if a furnace is rated for 95% AFUE. This means that 95% of the fuel was converted to heat with only 5% of fuel being lost in the combustion process.

AHRIAHRI stands for Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute. It is a trade association representing manufacturers of HVACR (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration) equipment. AHRI establishes performance standards and certification programs for HVACR equipment to ensure that products meet certain levels of safety and efficiency.
AHRI provides third-party testing and certification of HVACR equipment to verify that the products meet or exceed industry standards. The AHRI certification mark on a product indicates that it has been independently tested and certified to meet the applicable performance standards.
AHRI's certification programs cover a wide range of HVACR equipment, including air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers, water heaters, and commercial refrigeration equipment. By using AHRI-certified equipment, building owners and managers can be confident that their HVAC systems are safe, energy-efficient, and reliable.

Air conditioner An air conditioner is an electronic appliance that is designed to regulate the temperature, humidity, and air quality in an indoor space. It works by removing heat and moisture from the air, which cools and dehumidifies the space.
There are different types of air conditioners, including window units, portable units, split systems, and central air conditioning systems. Window and portable units are designed for small spaces, while split systems and central air conditioning systems are better suited for larger areas.
Air conditioners use a refrigerant, which is a chemical that circulates through the system to absorb and release heat. The refrigerant goes through a cycle of compression, condensation, expansion, and evaporation to remove heat from the indoor air and release it outside.

Air conditioners are commonly used in homes, offices, and other indoor spaces to provide comfort and improve air quality. They can also help prevent the growth of mold and bacteria by reducing humidity levels in the air.

Air HandlerAn air handler is a device used in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that is responsible for circulating and conditioning the air inside a building. It is typically a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling elements, filters, and dampers.
The air handler draws in air from the surrounding space through a return duct, which passes the air through filters to remove contaminants like dust and pollen. The air is then passed over the heating and/or cooling elements to adjust the temperature as needed, and the conditioned air is distributed throughout the building via supply ducts.
Air handlers can vary in size and capacity depending on the size of the building and the required heating and cooling loads. They can also be equipped with additional features such as humidifiers, dehumidifiers, and UV lights to improve indoor air quality.

Bafflea baffle is a device that is used to control or redirect the flow of air within the system. It is typically a flat or curved panel or plate that is installed within the ductwork to change the direction of the airflow.
Baffles can be used for a variety of purposes in HVAC systems. For example, they can be used to:
  1. Control the flow of air: By strategically placing baffles within the ductwork, it is possible to control the amount of air that flows to different areas of a building. This can be useful for regulating the temperature or humidity levels in different rooms.
  2. Reduce noise: Baffles can also be used to reduce the noise level of an HVAC system. By redirecting the airflow, it is possible to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the system.
  3. Increase efficiency: By directing air to where it is needed most, baffles can help increase the efficiency of an HVAC system. This can help reduce energy consumption and lower operating costs.
Overall, baffles are an important component of HVAC systems, and they play a critical role in ensuring that the system operates efficiently and effectively.

Baseboard HeatingBaseboard heating is a type of heating system that is installed along the baseboard or skirting of a wall in a room. It works by circulating heated water or air through a series of pipes or fins that are located within the baseboard unit, which then radiates the heat into the room.
In a water-based system, hot water is circulated through the pipes, while in an electric system, electric heating elements are used to generate heat. The heat generated by the baseboard unit rises naturally and warms the air in the room, providing a comfortable level of warmth.

Baseboard heating is a popular option for many homes because it is relatively inexpensive to install, easy to maintain, and does not require ductwork or air vents. It is also relatively energy-efficient, as the heat is directed towards the lower part of the room where people are located, which helps to reduce energy waste. However, baseboard heating may not be as effective in larger rooms or homes with high ceilings, and it may take longer to heat up a room compared to other heating systems.

BoilerA boiler is a device used in HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems to heat water or other fluids to provide warmth to a building or space. It is part of a hydronic heating system that uses hot water or steam to distribute heat throughout a building.
The boiler heats the water or fluid to a high temperature and then circulates it through pipes to radiators, baseboard heaters, or other heat exchangers located in different rooms of the building. The heat is transferred from the hot water or steam to the surrounding air, which warms the space.
Boilers can be fueled by natural gas, propane, oil, or electricity, and they come in a variety of sizes and designs. They can be used in residential, commercial, and industrial applications, and are a common heating system in colder regions where a reliable and efficient source of heat is required.

BTUBTU/h (British thermal unit) - BTU or British Thermal Units are a unit of measurement of energy. BTUs describe how much heat is required to increase the temperature of one pound of water by one degree in fehrenheit. The term is commonly used to describe heating or cooling capacity.

CEECEE stands for "Consortium for Energy Efficiency." It is a nonprofit organization that promotes energy-efficient products and practices. In the context of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning), CEE provides guidelines and specifications for energy-efficient HVAC equipment, including air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. These guidelines and specifications are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of HVAC equipment, and to help consumers and businesses choose the most energy-efficient products. HVAC equipment that meets CEE's specifications is labeled with a CEE rating, which helps consumers identify products that are more energy-efficient than others.

Condo PackA "condo pack" generally refers to a packaged heating and cooling system that is designed for use in condominiums or other multi-unit residential buildings.
A condo pack typically includes an air handler, a compressor, and other necessary components, all housed in a single cabinet or enclosure. These units are designed to be compact and easy to install, with a focus on efficient operation and low noise levels.
Condo packs are often used in multi-unit residential buildings because they provide a centralized heating and cooling solution that can be easily controlled and monitored by building managers. They are also a cost-effective option for building owners, as they typically require less installation and maintenance work than separate heating and cooling systems for each unit.

Constant TorqueConstant torque refers to a type of motor control in HVAC systems that maintains a constant level of torque or twisting force, regardless of the speed of the motor. This means that the motor will provide the same amount of power, or torque, regardless of the heating or cooling demand.
In HVAC systems, constant torque motors are typically used in applications such as air handlers, fan coils, and some types of furnace blowers. They are designed to provide a consistent level of airflow throughout the space, even as the heating or cooling demand changes.
One of the advantages of constant torque motors is that they are generally more energy-efficient than other types of motors. By maintaining a consistent level of torque, they can operate at lower speeds when less airflow is needed, reducing energy consumption and improving overall system efficiency.

Another advantage of constant torque motors is that they can help to reduce noise levels in the HVAC system. Because they can operate at lower speeds, they can run more quietly and reduce the overall sound level of the system.

Copeland ScrollA Copeland Scroll is a type of compressor used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems. It was invented by Edmund Copeland in 1987 and is a popular choice for residential and commercial HVAC applications.
The Copeland Scroll compressor is a positive displacement compressor that uses two interleaved scrolls to compress refrigerant gas. One scroll is stationary while the other orbits around it, creating pockets of gas that are progressively compressed as they move towards the center of the scrolls. This process produces a smooth, quiet, and efficient compression cycle.

Compared to other types of compressors, the Copeland Scroll compressor has several advantages. It has fewer moving parts, which means it is less prone to mechanical failure and requires less maintenance. It also operates at a higher efficiency, which translates into lower energy consumption and operating costs. Additionally, the Copeland Scroll is known for its quiet operation, making it a popular choice for residential HVAC systems.

Condensing CoilA condensing coil is a component of an air conditioning or refrigeration system that helps to remove heat from the system. It is typically located in the outdoor unit of the system and is made up of a series of tubes that are wrapped in a coil. Refrigerant flows through these tubes, and as it does so, it releases heat into the air around the coil.
The condensing coil is responsible for releasing the heat that has been absorbed by the evaporator coil inside the building or refrigeration unit. As the hot refrigerant gas flows through the condensing coil, it cools and condenses back into a liquid state. This process releases the heat that was absorbed from inside the building or refrigeration unit, allowing the system to effectively cool the space.
The effectiveness of the condensing coil is affected by a number of factors, including the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air, the amount of air flow over the coil, and the cleanliness of the coil. Regular maintenance, including cleaning and inspection, can help to ensure that the condensing coil is operating at peak efficiency and effectiveness.

Downflow"Downflow" refers to the direction of airflow within the system. In a downflow system, the air flows downward from the top of the unit and is discharged through the bottom.
Downflow HVAC systems are commonly used in situations where space is limited, such as in mobile homes or modular buildings, where the unit is installed above the living space and the air is pushed down through ductwork in the floor. Downflow systems can also be used in larger commercial applications where ceiling heights are low and vertical space is limited.

ECMECM stands for Electronically Commutated Motor and refers to a type of motor used in HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems.
ECM motors are more efficient than traditional motors because they use electronic controls to vary the motor's speed based on the system's needs. This allows the motor to operate at a lower speed when the demand for heating or cooling is low, which saves energy and reduces operating costs.
ECM motors are commonly used in HVAC systems, such as furnaces, air handlers, and condensing units. They are also used in other applications, such as refrigeration systems, pool pumps, and fans.

EER RatingEER Rating - An acronym for Energy Efficiency Ratio, it used to measure energy efficiency in heating and cooling system. EER is determined by dividing the BTUs by power used (wattage).

EER2 RatingEER2 stands for "Energy Efficiency Ratio 2" and is a measure of the cooling efficiency of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system. EER2 is one of the many efficiency ratings used in the HVAC industry to rate the energy efficiency of air conditioners and heat pumps.
EER2 is a measure of how much cooling capacity an HVAC system can provide per unit of energy consumed, and it is calculated by dividing the cooling output in British Thermal Units (BTUs) per hour by the power consumption in watts at a specific outdoor temperature and humidity level. EER2 is typically measured at a higher outdoor temperature (95°F) and a lower indoor temperature (80°F) than the standard EER rating, which is measured at a lower outdoor temperature (80°F) and a higher indoor temperature (95°F).
EER2 is used to rate the energy efficiency of HVAC systems that are designed to operate in hotter and more humid climates, where the cooling load is typically higher. The higher the EER2 rating, the more efficient the system is at cooling, and the less energy it will consume to provide the same amount of cooling.

EEVEEV stands for Electronic Expansion Valve, and it is a type of valve commonly used in HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems. An EEV is an electronically-controlled valve that regulates the flow of refrigerant through the system to maintain the desired level of cooling or heating.
The EEV works by using a small motor to adjust the position of a needle valve in response to signals from a controller or sensor. This allows the valve to modulate the flow of refrigerant based on the specific needs of the system at any given time. By controlling the flow of refrigerant, the EEV can maintain precise control over the temperature and pressure within the HVAC system, improving overall system performance and energy efficiency.
EEVs are commonly used in both residential and commercial HVAC systems, and are particularly useful in systems that require precise temperature control, such as those used in laboratories or clean rooms. They are also used in refrigeration systems, where precise control over the flow of refrigerant is essential to maintain food safety and prevent spoilage.

Energy StarEnergy Star is a program developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants caused by energy consumption. In the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) industry, the Energy Star program sets energy efficiency standards for heating and cooling equipment, such as air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.
The Energy Star program establishes efficiency guidelines for HVAC equipment based on regional climate zones, taking into account factors such as temperature and humidity. HVAC systems that meet or exceed these guidelines are awarded an Energy Star rating, indicating that they consume less energy and are more environmentally friendly than other models on the market.

To earn an Energy Star rating, HVAC equipment must meet strict energy efficiency requirements set by the EPA. These requirements are updated periodically to reflect advances in technology and changes in the industry. By choosing Energy Star certified HVAC equipment, consumers can save money on their energy bills and help protect the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants.

Evaporator CoilAn evaporator coil is a component in an air conditioning or refrigeration system that is responsible for absorbing heat from the indoor air or refrigerant and transferring it to the outdoor unit.
The evaporator coil is typically located inside the indoor unit and consists of a series of copper or aluminum tubes that are filled with refrigerant. As warm indoor air passes over the coils, the refrigerant inside the coils absorbs the heat and evaporates, turning into a low-pressure gas. This cooled air is then circulated back into the room through the air conditioning or heating system's ductwork.
The evaporator coil plays a crucial role in the cooling process of an air conditioning or refrigeration system. If the coil becomes dirty or clogged with debris, it can hinder its ability to absorb heat, reduce its efficiency and potentially damage the entire system. Regular maintenance and cleaning of the evaporator coil is necessary to ensure optimal performance and prolong the lifespan of the system.

Garage HeaterA garage heater is a type of heating system designed specifically to provide warmth to a garage or workshop. It is a component of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system.
Garage heaters come in various types, including electric, gas, and propane heaters. Electric heaters are usually easy to install and require little maintenance, while gas and propane heaters require proper ventilation to prevent the buildup of harmful gases.
The size and power of a garage heater depend on the size of the garage or workshop and the desired level of heating. Some models come with built-in thermostats, which allow the user to set and maintain the desired temperature.
Garage heaters are commonly used in cold climates where a garage can become uncomfortably cold during the winter months. They provide a convenient and efficient way to keep the garage warm and comfortable for working, as well as protect vehicles and other equipment stored in the garage from the harsh effects of cold temperatures.

Gas FurnaceA gas furnace is a heating system that burns natural gas or propane to generate heat. The furnace contains a combustion chamber where the gas is burned, and a heat exchanger where the heat from the combustion process is transferred to the air that is then distributed throughout the house via a network of ducts.
Gas furnaces are typically controlled by a thermostat, which measures the temperature of the air and turns the furnace on or off to maintain the desired temperature. They are a popular choice for home heating because they are efficient, reliable, and can quickly provide warmth to a home. However, they require access to a gas line and may require occasional maintenance to ensure safe and proper operation.

Heat ExchangerIn HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning), a heat exchanger is a component of a heating or cooling system that transfers heat between the indoor air and a separate fluid, such as water or refrigerant. The heat exchanger allows for the transfer of heat from the hot fluid (in the case of heating) or the cool fluid (in the case of cooling) to the indoor air.
In a heating system, the heat exchanger is typically a metal component located within a furnace or air handler, which is responsible for heating the air before it is distributed throughout the building. The heat exchanger is heated by burning fuel or using an electric heating element, and then the hot air is blown over it, transferring the heat to the air.
In a cooling system, the heat exchanger is typically located in the outdoor unit (condenser) and/or indoor unit (evaporator) and is responsible for removing heat from the indoor air and transferring it outside. The heat exchanger uses refrigerant to absorb the heat from the indoor air and then releases it outside, cooling the indoor air in the process.
Heat exchangers in HVAC systems are critical components that help ensure efficient and effective heating and cooling. They must be properly maintained and inspected to ensure they are functioning properly and not leaking.

Heat PumpA heat pump is a device that uses refrigeration technology to transfer heat from one location to another. It is essentially a reverse air conditioner, capable of both heating and cooling a space.
In heating mode, a heat pump absorbs heat from the outdoor air, ground, or water source, and transfers it to the indoor space via a refrigerant cycle. This process is reversed in cooling mode, where the heat pump absorbs heat from the indoor space and releases it outside.
Heat pumps can be used in a variety of applications, from residential heating and cooling to large-scale commercial and industrial systems. They are generally more energy-efficient than traditional heating and cooling systems, as they move heat rather than generating it through combustion or electrical resistance.

HydronicHydronic heating is a type of heating system that uses water or other fluids as the heat transfer medium to warm up a space. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems that use hydronic heating typically consist of a boiler or water heater, pipes, and radiators or other types of heat emitters.
In a hydronic heating system, hot water is circulated through a closed loop of pipes, which are often embedded in floors or walls. The heat from the water is transferred to the surrounding space through the walls, floors, or radiators, providing a comfortable and even heat source. Hydronic systems are often used in larger buildings, such as commercial or industrial facilities, but can also be used in residential settings.
Hydronic systems are known for their energy efficiency and flexibility. They can be powered by a variety of energy sources, including natural gas, oil, or electricity, and can be customized to meet the specific heating needs of a building. They are also quieter than traditional forced-air heating systems and offer better temperature control.

IAQIAQ stands for Indoor Air Quality, and it refers to the quality of the air within a building, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. In the context of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems, IAQ is an important consideration because these systems can affect the quality of the indoor air by controlling temperature, humidity, and air circulation.
HVAC systems can help maintain good IAQ by filtering out pollutants, controlling moisture levels, and bringing in fresh air from outside. Factors that can affect IAQ include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, temperature and humidity levels, ventilation rates, and the presence of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and mold.
To ensure good IAQ, HVAC systems should be properly designed, installed, and maintained. This includes regular filter changes, inspections, and cleaning of ductwork. In addition, it is important to monitor IAQ using sensors and to take corrective action if problems are detected.

Low GWPLow GWP (Global Warming Potential) in HVAC refers to the use of refrigerants with a lower global warming potential than traditional refrigerants.
Refrigerants are substances used in HVAC systems to transfer heat from indoor to outdoor environments. However, some traditional refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have been found to be harmful to the environment by depleting the ozone layer and contributing to global warming.
To address these environmental concerns, HVAC systems have shifted towards using refrigerants with lower GWP values, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), and natural refrigerants such as ammonia and carbon dioxide. These refrigerants have lower GWP values and are more environmentally friendly than traditional refrigerants.
By using low GWP refrigerants in HVAC systems, businesses and homeowners can reduce their carbon footprint and help mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Mini SplitA mini-split, also known as a ductless mini-split or a ductless heating and cooling system, is a type of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system that is designed to provide heating and cooling to a specific room or area. Unlike traditional HVAC systems that use ducts to distribute air throughout a building, mini-splits are made up of two main components: an outdoor unit and an indoor unit.
The outdoor unit houses the compressor and other key components of the system, while the indoor unit is mounted on the wall or ceiling of the room being cooled or heated. The two units are connected by a small refrigerant line that runs through a small hole in the wall.
Mini-splits are often used in situations where it is not practical or cost-effective to install a traditional HVAC system, such as in older homes without existing ductwork or in additions or rooms that are not connected to the main heating and cooling system. They are also known for their energy efficiency, quiet operation, and flexibility in terms of zoning and temperature control.

PEXPex (cross-linked polyethylene) is a type of flexible plastic tubing that is used in HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems. It is commonly used as a material for piping in radiant heating systems and for distributing hot and cold water in buildings.
In HVAC applications, Pex tubing can be used as a part of a hydronic heating system, where hot water is circulated through the tubing to provide radiant heat. Pex tubing can also be used in a geothermal heating and cooling system, where the tubing is buried in the ground and used to transfer heat to or from the earth.
Pex tubing has many advantages in HVAC applications. It is flexible, which makes it easy to install in tight spaces and around obstacles. It is also resistant to corrosion and scaling, which can prolong the life of the HVAC system. Additionally, Pex tubing is an excellent insulator, which helps to reduce heat loss and improve energy efficiency.

PSC MotorPSC (Permanent Split Capacitor) motors are commonly used for various applications such as fans and blowers.
In HVAC applications, PSC motors are typically used in air handlers, furnaces, and other air-moving systems. These motors are preferred because they provide a high level of reliability, efficiency, and versatility.
For example, PSC motors can operate at different speeds, which makes them ideal for variable speed applications. Additionally, PSC motors are known for their quiet operation, making them an ideal choice for residential and commercial HVAC systems where noise levels need to be kept to a minimum.
Another advantage of PSC motors in HVAC applications is their ability to operate with higher efficiencies compared to other types of motors. This is due to the fact that the capacitor is always connected to the auxiliary winding, which allows for a more balanced current flow, resulting in reduced energy consumption.
Overall, PSC motors are a popular choice in HVAC systems due to their reliability, efficiency, versatility, and quiet operation.

R410A R-410A (sometimes referred to as just "410A") is a type of refrigerant used in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems. It is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant that was developed as a more environmentally friendly alternative to older refrigerants such as R-22.

R-410A is used in newer air conditioning and heat pump systems because it has a higher cooling capacity and operates at a higher pressure than R-22, which allows for more efficient and effective cooling. It is also more environmentally friendly because it does not contain chlorine, which can deplete the ozone layer.
It's worth noting that R-410A requires different equipment and installation procedures than older refrigerants like R-22, so it's important to work with a qualified HVAC professional who is trained and certified to work with R-410A if you are considering installing or repairing an HVAC system that uses this refrigerant.

SEERSEER Rating - SEER or Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio is a measurement that was used to determine how efficiently air conditioning systems performed. The rating is determined by taking the cooling output for a normal cooling season and dividing it by the energy used throughout the year.

SEER2In the context of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems, SEER2 stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, version 2. It is a measure of the energy efficiency of an air conditioning or heat pump unit over an entire cooling season.
SEER2 ratings are determined by the amount of cooling output (in British Thermal Units or BTUs) that an air conditioning unit provides over a season divided by the amount of energy it consumes (in watt-hours) during that same season. The higher the SEER2 rating, the more energy-efficient the system is, and the lower the operating costs will be.
SEER2 ratings are regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and are required to be displayed on all new air conditioning and heat pump units sold in the United States. The minimum SEER2 rating for new units varies by region, with higher SEER2 ratings required for hotter regions.

SEER2In the context of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems, SEER2 stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, version 2. It is a measure of the energy efficiency of an air conditioning or heat pump unit over an entire cooling season.
SEER2 ratings are determined by the amount of cooling output (in British Thermal Units or BTUs) that an air conditioning unit provides over a season divided by the amount of energy it consumes (in watt-hours) during that same season. The higher the SEER2 rating, the more energy-efficient the system is, and the lower the operating costs will be.
SEER2 ratings are regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and are required to be displayed on all new air conditioning and heat pump units sold in the United States. The minimum SEER2 rating for new units varies by region, with higher SEER2 ratings required for hotter regions.

Static PressureStatic pressure refers to the amount of pressure exerted by the air on the walls of the ductwork, blower, and other components of the system when it is not in motion. It is called "static" because it is measured when the air is not moving, as opposed to "dynamic" pressure which is measured when the air is in motion.
The static pressure is an important parameter to consider in HVAC design because it affects the efficiency of the system. If the static pressure is too high, it can cause the blower to work harder, which can lead to increased energy consumption and decreased lifespan of the system. On the other hand, if the static pressure is too low, it can result in inadequate airflow and poor performance.
HVAC professionals use various instruments to measure the static pressure, such as manometers, pressure gauges, and pressure sensors. They typically measure the static pressure at several points in the system, including the supply and return ducts, the air handler, and the filter. This information is then used to determine the appropriate blower speed and duct size for the system, which can optimize its performance and efficiency.

ThermostatA thermostat is a device used in HVAC systems to regulate the temperature in a room or building. It typically consists of a sensor that detects the current temperature and a control mechanism that adjusts the heating or cooling system to maintain the desired temperature.
Thermostats can be either manual or programmable. A manual thermostat requires the user to adjust the temperature manually, while a programmable thermostat allows the user to set the desired temperature at different times of the day or week. This can help save energy by reducing heating or cooling when the building is unoccupied or when the temperature outside is mild.

Some modern thermostats are "smart" and can be controlled remotely via a mobile app or web interface. These thermostats may also have additional features, such as the ability to learn the user's schedule and preferences and adjust the temperature automatically.

THHN WireTHHN wire is a type of electrical wire that is commonly used in building wiring and electrical systems. THHN stands for Thermoplastic High Heat-resistant Nylon-coated, which describes the construction of the wire.
THHN wire is typically made of a copper conductor with a thermoplastic insulation and a nylon outer jacket. The wire is rated for use in temperatures up to 90°C (194°F) and has a maximum voltage rating of 600 volts.
THHN wire is commonly used for general-purpose wiring in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. It is often used in conduit or cable trays and can be installed in wet or dry locations. It is also often used in branch circuits, control circuits, and other applications where a durable and reliable electrical connection is required.
Overall, THHN wire is a popular choice for its high temperature resistance, durability, and versatility in various applications.

TXVa TXV (Thermostatic Expansion Valve) is a device used to control the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator coil of an air conditioning system.
The TXV works by sensing the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant as it passes through the valve. Based on this information, the valve adjusts the flow of refrigerant to maintain a consistent superheat, which is the difference in temperature between the refrigerant and the surrounding air.
The TXV is an important component in maintaining the efficiency of an HVAC system, as it ensures that the evaporator coil is operating at the proper temperature and that the system is not overworking itself to achieve the desired temperature.

Unit Heater A unit heater is a type of heating system used to provide warmth to a specific area or room. It is a self-contained heating unit that is typically installed on a wall or ceiling and operates by using natural gas, propane, electricity, or steam to generate heat.
Unit heaters are often used in commercial or industrial settings, such as warehouses, factories, garages, and workshops. They are also commonly used in residential settings, particularly in areas that require localized heating, such as basements, garages, or small apartments.
Unit heaters come in various sizes and designs, but they typically consist of a heat exchanger, a blower fan, and a control system. The heat exchanger is responsible for generating heat, while the blower fan circulates the warm air throughout the room. The control system allows the user to adjust the temperature, fan speed, and other settings to meet their specific needs.

Upflowan upflow refers to the direction of airflow in a furnace or air handler unit.
In an upflow HVAC system, the air is drawn in through the bottom of the unit and flows upward through the system, typically into the ductwork and eventually to the vents throughout a building or home. This configuration is common in residential HVAC systems, particularly in homes with basements or crawl spaces where the unit can be installed on the main floor and vented upward.

Variable Speed (V.S.)Variable speed refers to the ability of an HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system's motor to operate at different speeds, rather than just one fixed speed.
In HVAC systems, the blower motor is responsible for circulating air throughout the home or building. With a variable speed motor, the blower can adjust its speed based on the heating or cooling demand, resulting in more efficient and precise temperature control. Variable speed technology can provide a number of benefits, including increased energy efficiency, better humidity control, and quieter operation. By allowing the system to operate at lower speeds when less heating or cooling is needed, variable speed motors can reduce energy consumption and lower utility bills. Additionally, they can help to maintain more consistent temperatures throughout the space and reduce noise levels by operating at lower speeds.